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Oceania

The world's smallest continent, the region consists of approximately 10,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. Know the main data about the continent.

Oceania is the name given to the continent or region formed by about 10,000 islands located in the Pacific Ocean. The world's smallest continent, it is formed by 14 countries and divided into four regions: Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

2008 OceaniaLocated below Asia and above Antarctica, the continent was named after Oceania by the French explorer Dumont d'Urville in 1831. Most of its territory corresponds to Australia, the largest island, which occupies 85% of the continent.

Being in a tropical region, Oceania has a hot and humid climate, with varied fauna and flora. For example, animals that only exist in Australia, such as kangaroos and marsupials, are famous.

The most developed countries in Oceania are Australia and New Zealand. They are major producers of wool, rich in various ores and precious metals, as well as having prosperous food and chemical industries.

Through Countryaah, get to know the main data, countries and capitals in Oceania:

Key Facts

Number of countries: 14
Population (2018): 41,261,000╣
Total area (km2): 9,008,458 km▓
Population density (per km2) (2018): 4.9╣
GDP (2018): 1,535,831,000 (in dollars) ╣
GDP per capita (2086): 38,561.00 (in dollars) ╣

Countries and capitals (divided by region)

Australasia

  • Australia - Canberra
  • New Zealand - Wellington

Melanesia

  • Papua New Guinea - Porto Moresby
  • Solomon Islands - Honiara
  • Vanuatu - Port Vila
  • Fiji - Suva

Micronesia

  • Palau - Ngerulmud
  • Kiribati - South Tarawa
  • Federated States of Micronesia - Palikir
  • Marshall Islands - Majuro
  • Nauru - Yaren

Polynesia

  • Samoa - Apia
  • Tonga - Nuku'alofa
  • Tuvalu - Vaiaku

Oceania (Prehistory & History - Independence)

Worldwide decolonization reached relatively late to Oceania. Samoa gained independence from New Zealand in 1962, and in the following two decades many other states followed suit. The US-dominated areas of Micronesia, except Guam, became independent in the 1980s after difficult negotiations, while American Samoa has maintained close ties with the United States. Hawaii was incorporated in 1959 as a state in the United States. France, as the only one of the colonial powers of the past, maintains control over its New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna possessions.

Modern oceanic societies are characterized by colonial movements and border settlements of the colonial era. In Papua New Guinea, an independence movement in Bougainville, which belongs to Papua New Guinea but feels more closely connected to the Solomon Islands, has waged an armed struggle against the state. In Fiji, equal groups of Melanesians and Fiji Indians (introduced as laborers by the British colonial power) face each other in an ethnic contradiction that in 1987 triggered a Melanesian military coup. In New Caledonia, Canucks have made several vain attempts to gain independence through armed insurgency against the French-dominated majority. In New Zealand, Australia and Hawaii, the contradictions between the indigenous minorities and the white majority since the 1970s have led to numerous serious conflicts.

Oceanic societies are characterized by a growing divide between the educated elite of the state and the general population, which is tied to subsistence economics. Externally, the countries' economic dependence on foreign powers, which have special interests in the area, continues.

Samoa History

Samoa was populated from Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines from around 1500 BC. The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen discovered Samoa in 1722. Louis de Bougainville explored the islands in 1768. The Christian mission began in the 1830s; the missionaries were followed by American and European traders. In 1899, Samoa was divided between Germany and the United States; Germany got Western Samoa. New Zealand occupied Western Samoa in 1914. Nearly a fifth of the population died during the flu epidemic 1918-19. New Zealand was given the mandate over the islands in 1920.

In 1946, the mandate for Samoa was renewed as a UN area of ​​supervision. The islands gained more and more autonomy and after a revolt in 1961, Samoa in 1962 became the first Polynesian territory to become an independent state. Malietoa Tanumafili 2 was elected monarch (1963-2007). Western Samoa joined the Commonwealth in 1970.

General voting rights were introduced in 1990. In 1997, the country changed its name from Western Samoa to Samoa. The number of tourists increased significantly in the 1990s. Samoa was hit by catastrophic cyclones in 1990 and 1991 and the number of tropical storms has increased in recent years due to climate change.

Tonga History

Tonga was populated around 1000 BCE. of Austronesian- speaking people. The Tongans developed a stratified social system led by a ruler whose empire in the 13th century reached all the way to Hawaii.

The Dutchman Jacob le Maitre visited the islands in 1616 and Abel Tasman in 1643. James Cook came in 1773 and 1774, and called them the Friendly Islands. The first European settlers arrived in Tonga in the late 18th century and a Methodist mission was established in 1826; it abolished traditional religions. In 1845, Tonga became a united kingdom under the baptized king Tupou 1, and it was granted a constitution in 1875.

In 1905, Tonga and the United Kingdom entered into a friendship agreement and Tonga became a British protectorate, but did not lose political independence. At the death of George Tupou 2 in 1918, the throne went to daughter Salote Tupou 3. She was popular and also popular in the United Kingdom, and reigned until 1965.

The Protectorate was dissolved in 1970 when Tonga gained independence. From 1965 to 2006, Tonga was ruled by King Taufa'ahau Tupou 4. Since the 1990s, Tonga has had high inflation and unemployment. To reduce dependence on imports, wave energy and solar energy are utilized.

Countries in Oceania
  1. Australia
  2. Fiji
  3. Kiribati
  4. Marshall Islands
  5. Micronesia
  6. Nauru
  7. New Zealand
  8. Palau
  9. Papua New Guinea
  10. Samoa
  11. Solomon Islands
  12. Tonga
  13. Tuvalu
  14. Vanuatu

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