According to the 1977 Constitution, which confirms the provisional one of 8 July 1965, Tanzania is a Republic. Head of state and government is the President of the Republic, elected for 5 years by direct suffrage, as well as the National Assembly, which is entrusted with legislative power. The President of Tanzania, who is responsible for exercising executive power, governs through the Cabinet of Ministers appointed by him. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba have great autonomy and have their own system with a president and a House of Representatives. The judicial system is based on the Common Law British. At the top of the judiciary sits the Tanzania Court of Appeal which, since 1979, has replaced the East African Court of Appeal. Each region also has a High Court and each district a District Court with limited jurisdiction that accepts appeals from the courts of first instance, also with limited jurisdiction. Popular courts operate in Zanzibar and, for the first time since 1970, a defense lawyer and the right of appeal were admitted to the trial in 1985. The death penalty is in force, but executions have not taken place since 1995. The country’s armed forces are divided into three traditional weapons. Alongside these, the rural police forces and the city militia work for internal security. The military service is mandatory and the stop is 2 years. As far as education is concerned, the Tanzanian government’s commitment to the fight against illiteracy was great, which made it necessary to spread education to areas further away from urban centers. According to 2007 estimates, the percentage of illiterate people was 27.7%. Primary education is compulsory from 6 to 14 years of age. Secondary education is paid; the schools are often private and the costs for families are very high and this also explains why only a small number of pupils continue their studies. It lasts 6 years, divided into two cycles, the first four-year and the second two-year. According to andyeducation, higher education takes place in the University of Dar es Salaam, International Medical and Technological University, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences all based in Dar es Saalam, Mount Meru University based in Arusha and Sokoine University of Agriculture based in Morogoro.
The continental territory, the one corresponding to the former Tanganyika, is included in the high lands of East Africa; more precisely, it includes a large part of the East African plateau, characterized by the numerous lakes that occupy the Great Rift Valley, the gigantic continental divide extending from Lake Malawi (Niassa) to the Red Sea. Here it is clearly highlighted in two branches: the western one, which corresponds to Lake Tanganyika and which forms the natural limit of Tanzania to the W, and the eastern one, less marked and in which various smaller lakes are located (Eyasi, Natron, etc.). Between the two branches of the pit is included the central and largest nucleus of Tanzania, which however also includes a large section of the eastern edge of the plateau up to the Indian Ocean. The central highlands are located on average at a height of 1000 m; However, near the branches of the Great Rift Valley there are often imposing reliefs that form a kind of U, affecting the western, southern and eastern part of the country: to the N, on the other hand, the mountainous continuity is broken by the immense basin of Lake Victoria. These reliefs are characterized by the presence of massive volcanic systems, whose origin, as well as that in general of the entire mountain rim of the Great Rift Valley is intimately linked to the very birth of the massive fracture. Among the volcanoes emerges, in all its grandeur, the Kilimanjaro (5895 m), the highest peak in Africa, which dominates the extreme northeastern section of the country, on the border with Kenya; further to the SW rises the Meru (4565 m). The reliefs also reach a considerable elevation in southern Tanzania, in particular just N of Lake Malawi, where the Kipengere mountains reach 3000 meters. The territory rests on a Precambrian base, whose lifting took place in the Cenozoic, again in conjunction with the formation of the fracture. Penepiano worn by the very slow erosion, generally does not present significant roughness, but residual traces of ancient reliefs, alternating depressions and plateaus affected by the river furrows, more or less engraved according to the rocky substrate. Over vast stretches the crystalline base emerges archaeozoic, to reveal the antiquity of the erosion surfaces; however, close to the pit, more or less ancient effusive volcanic materials overlap it extensively, forming an almost continuous expanse throughout northern Tanzania, on the edge of Lake Victoria and Kilimanjaro (Serengeti Plain, Masai Steppe). On more limited areas, the base is covered, as in the southern part, by Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary layers, to which are added the Neozoic river and lake covers. in the troughs of the trench and along river courses. The other lands slope towards the coast, where, however, the alluvial, flat lands form a rather narrow strip, due to the approach to the sea of the internal reliefs, with the exception of the central area crossed by the Rufiji river; lagoons and dune morphologies are frequent. Just off the coast, over long stretches, there are coral outcrops, testifying to the extension of the continental plateau, which slopes very insensibly towards the Indian Ocean. It is on this plateau that, 70-80 km from the coast, the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia (the latter already belonged to Tanganyika before the federal union with Zanzibar), flat surfaces of more or less recent madreporic material, which surround themselves with large coral reefs.