Germany. At the beginning of the year, three state elections were held that were seen as a thumbs-up for the 2009 election. Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democratic CDU lost ground in all three elections while the result became more mixed for the national-level coalition partner, the Social Democratic SPD. The elections were a success for the newly formed Left Party Die Linke.
In Hesse, despite the setback, the CDU was able to re-establish government with the liberal FDP. In Hamburg, where the SPD also lost its mandate, the CDU for the first time formed a “blue-green” coalition with the environmental party The Greens. In Lower Saxony, where CDU and SPD received equal voting shares, the situation remained unclear for a long time. The SPD made several attempts to form a government with the Green Party, supported by Die Linke, but failed when several SPD members refused to seek support from the party, which consisted partly of former communists. In November, one last attempt was made; when it failed, the state parliament dissolved and new elections were announced.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER: Click to see the meanings of 2-letter acronym and abbreviation of GM in general and in geography as Germany in particular.
In a fire disaster in Ludwigshafen in February, nine people with Turkish background were killed. Speculation that neo-Nazis caused the fire to occur and some Turkish immigrants accused the fire brigade of having arrived late in the fire with diligence. Turkey sent investigators and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited the fire scene. The investigation found no evidence of an arson fire.
The government coalition tensions increased when in May the SPD nominated Gesine Schwan as its candidate in the 2009 presidential election. Schwan, who is challenging incumbent President Horst Köhler, hoped to strengthen the SPD’s failing position.
The continuing declining figures for the SPD caused party leader Kurt Beck to resign in September. At an extra congress in October, Franz Müntefering, who had resigned from politics last year, returned to the party leader post. At the same time, the party appointed Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier as SPD’s chancellor candidate, thereby challenging Angela Merkel ahead of the federal election in September 2009.
In Bavaria, in September it became a disaster choice for CSU, the CDU’s sister party, which had its own majority in the state since 1962. CSU backed from 60 to 43 percent and was forced to form a coalition with the FDP. Party leader Erwin Huber resigned and was replaced by Horst Seehofer.
In October, the Bundestag approved a rescue package for the banks of € 480 billion that would help dampen the effects of the global financial crisis. The government had already pledged support to rescue, among other things, the big bank Hypo Real Estate, which was facing collapse. In order to calm borrowers, a bank guarantee was issued for all private savings in the country.
In November, it was formally established that Germany was in recession, as growth was negative for two consecutive quarters. But despite the downturn in world trade hit hard on export-oriented Germany, and not least its automotive industry, the government took a more restrained stance on government intervention than many of the other leading economies in the EU, leading to criticism of Merkel. Eventually, a stimulus package of EUR 50 billion was adopted in two years, in mixed private and state investment, and as the year ended, negotiations between the coalition parties were ongoing for yet another package. In December, a slight rise in unemployment was noted for the first time in three years, at 7.6 percent.
We find the first references to the existence of the Germans ifbm. the military expeditions undertaken by the Roman emperor Julius Caesar in Gaul – north of the Alps and west of the Rhine – in the years 58-51 BCE. These people invaded the Mediterranean already in the years 113-101 BCE.
In year 9, Arminio, leader of the Querusians, carried out a revolt that crushed 3 Roman legions at Teutoburg. By the middle of the third century, the original tribes had gathered in larger political associations: the Saxons, the Franks and the Germans. Following the gradual withdrawal of the Romans, the invasion of Atila’s females in the fourth century led to the great migration of people in Europe. But the Mongol empire was crushed after it had defeated the Germans in the year 455. Germans and Saxons, in turn, were defeated by Clovis and Karl the Great from the Frankish empire.
The division of the Caroline empire with the Treaty of Verdun in 843 gave rise to the formation of the first purely Germanic kingdom. During Oton I, crowned in Rome in 936, Germany developed and remained the most powerful European kingdom during the following 2 centuries. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Germany carried out continuous expansion and colonization, stimulated by the ever-increasing population. During the same period, the non-stability of kingdoms contributed to the formation of both secular and religious principals. The princes were authorized to build castles, exploit natural resources and practice justice in their areas.
In 1356, the royal authority over the papacy was legally affirmed with Charles IV’s (1346-78) golden bull. He obtained the right to appoint the king himself without Rome’s approval and at the same time strengthened the position of the principals, whose support he depended on. The 15th and 16th centuries were characterized by a continuous lack of internal stability. The Protestant Reformation initiated by Martin Luther’s theses in 1517 was mixed with the political rival. The Reformation channeled the ever-increasing criticism of the increasing secularization and corruption of the German Church. The church had developed into an economically wealthy institution, whose lands in some parts accounted for one-third of the total land area, but the scandal itself was triggered by the sale of sins. After numerous civil wars and peasant revolts,
The political quarrels reflected the religious ones. In 1608 the Union was formed (Protestant) and the year after the League (Catholic). The uprising in Bohemia was the start of the Thirty Years War (1618-48), affecting the entire continent and reducing the population of Central Europe by approx. 30%. It was completed in 1648 with peace in Westphalia.
Berlin – music
Since the Middle Ages, Berlin has been the scene of a rich and varied musical life; however, some periods stand stronger in history than others. Significant was especially the reign of Frederik II the Great in the middle of the 1700’s.
At court, composers such as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and the brothers CH and JG Graun worked, the latter especially in connection with the opera. In 1742, the music-interested king founded the Königliche Hofoper, which in 1919 changed its name to the Deutsche Staatsoper, and whose new building at Unter den Linden was inaugurated in 1955.
From 1912 the Deutsches Opernhaus (later Städtische Oper, from 1961 Deutsche Oper) originates. In 1947, the Komische Oper opened in what was then East Berlin.
Countless conductors and other artists have over the years developed their abilities in collaboration with the city’s leading symphony orchestras, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, the Staatskapelle Berlin, the Berlin Sinfonie-Orchester and the Radio-Sinfonie-Orchester.
The center of music education in Germany was the Hochschule für Musik, which was founded in 1869.
According to Countryaah reports, the population of Germany in 2008 was 80,826,891, ranking number 16 in the world. The population growth rate was -0.190% yearly, and the population density was 231.8884 people per km2.