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South America

With an extension of about 17.8 million km˛, South America comprises 6% of the world population divided into 12 countries and 7 territories. As found on Countryaah, they are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela, and the territories of French Guiana, Easter Island, Galapagos Islands, Georgia and Sandwich Islands and the Malvinas Islands. It is limited to the north with Central America, to the east with the Atlantic Ocean and to the west with the Pacific Ocean.

Crossed by the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, the continent has the second largest mountain range in the world in the Andean Region, stretching from Venezuela to Chile and Argentina. In the Amazon valley, we find the largest hydrographic basin in the world, as well as the region with the greatest biodiversity: the Amazon rainforest. The humid tropical climate guarantees high rainfall density throughout the region that lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, with some exceptions due to the relief.

The climate in the South American continent is quite diverse due to the size of the continent. In the nearest region, the equatorial line is dominated by a humid tropical climate. South of the Tropic of Capricorn there are areas of temperate climate. The coldest regions of the continent are the extreme south and the Andes region, due to the altitude. In contrast, South America is also home to the driest desert in the world, the Atacama Desert in Chile. There are people there who have never seen a rain in their lives: it can take up to 20 years without raining there.

Because of climatic influences, vegetation also varies widely from region to region. In areas with favorable climate there are high-density forests such as the Amazon rainforest (an equatorial forest ) and the Atlantic Forest that, although quite devastated ( deforestation in the Amazon, deforestation in the Atlantic Forest ) during the colonization process, still keeps one of the greatest biological diversity on the planet. In southern Brazil and Argentina are the prairies or fields, with the Pampas being the largest pastures in South America. Another vegetation found in South America is the caatinga. Typical of the Northeast Regionfrom Brazil, the largest and most populous country on the continent, it is characterized by having fire resistant plants, the xerophytes. In cold climates, araucaria forests can also be found. Or, cactus species and typical desert plants in arid regions. Savannah and savannah also belong to the wide variety of vegetation on the continent.

In South America, different ethnicities and languages can be found, ranging from Portuguese and Spanish, which are the most widely spoken, to Caiapó and Bantu. The first is an indigenous dialect and the second an dialect of African origin brought by the slaves. Miscegenation, by the way, is a typical characteristic of the South American continent that had its colonization based on the exploitation of natural resources.

The main resources explored to date across the subcontinent are gold, copper, silver, mercury, diamond, lead, zinc, manganese and tin, with coal a little-found mineral and bauxite and iron the most economically important. Oil and natural gas are also well distributed across the continent.

Countries in South America
  1. Argentina
  2. Bolivia
  3. Brazil
  4. Chile
  5. Colombia
  6. Ecuador
  7. Guyana
  8. Paraguay
  9. Peru
  10. Suriname
  11. Uruguay
  12. Venezuela

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