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Yearbook 2008

Nicaragua. According to Countryaah reports, the FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) party won big in the municipal elections on November 9. The party won in 91 out of 146 municipalities, including the capital Managua where 30 percent of the electorate lives, while the largest opposition party PLC (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista) won in 50 municipalities. However, a shadow fell over the elections in the form of fierce accusations of cheating and irregularities, and a turnout of just 55 percent. In addition, President Daniel Ortega refused to approve international election overseers from the US-based OAS, which he accused himself of being corrupt.

2008 Nicaragua

During one week in July, two major events were held in Managua. On July 19, 100,000 people celebrated the 29th anniversary of the 1979 Sandini Revolution, when Daniel Ortega played a lead role, overthrowing the dictator Anastasio Somoza. Just a few days before, however, a protest march against the government had gathered more than 30,000 people protesting against the economic policy of the sand administration, most notably inflation, which was the highest in Central America in June, at 23 percent on an annual basis, and against its dubious handling of democracy issues. Among other things, the FSLN has tried to illegally declare two parties, one of which is a dissident party from the FSLN, and postponed the regional elections in the autonomous region of Atlántico Norte which the opposition tipped to win.

The reassuring victory for the government in the November municipal elections also fueled rumors that President Ortega should try to move ahead with his plans for comprehensive constitutional reform, including the introduction of parliamentaryism, which the opposition considered a disguised way for Ortega to completely dominate Nicaraguan policy.


Abuja, capital of Nigeria. Abuja is located in central Nigeria and was designated as the future capital of Lagos in 1976; 979,900 residents (2012). In 1982, the city was formally inaugurated after a hectic construction period. The construction of Abuja was delayed, and only in December. In 1991, the appointment as capital became official.

A newly built airport with ten terminals is thought to be the center of the country's air traffic, and along with other major investments, it has contributed to Abuja's large population growth. The city has thus taken great strides towards conquering the square as the country's de facto capital from Lagos, which, however, remains Nigeria's most important city.

Abuja was founded in 1828 as the residence city of the first emir of Abuja. The city is located in a relatively sparsely populated agricultural area and in an area where none of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups dominate.


Managua, capital of Nicaragua; 2.4 million in the metropolitan area (2010). The city lies in a geologically very active area south of Lake Managua, and when the small town was designated the capital in 1857, it was a political and geographical compromise between the former capital León, the stronghold of the Liberals, and the conservative city of Granada.

The city has been destroyed several times by earthquakes, among other things. in 1972, when a series of shakes laid large parts of the city in ruins. It turned out that several fault zones were just below the city center; this was partially abandoned and some buildings are still in ruins. A new city center has been built 10 km to the east. In order to limit the damage if possible. upcoming earthquakes, several administrative functions have been moved to different suburbs.

Large parts of the city, but especially the poor residential areas near Lake Managua, were hit by floods in 1998 after Hurricane Mitch. In the old town lies the ruin of the city's former cathedral, which was destroyed by the 1972 earthquake and the refurbished National Palace.

Nearby, a new presidential palace, foreign ministry and buildings for other central administration functions have been erected. In the northern part of the old center facing Lake Managua lies the modern Rubén Darío National Theater, which, as one of the few buildings, survived the earthquake.

The majority of Nicaragua's industry is located in and around Managua. sugar refineries, textile and cement factories. In addition to the political, economic and administrative capital functions of the city, it is also a local center for the surrounding agricultural area and commercial center for the entire country. There is a rail link to the port city of Corinto on the Pacific Coast, and the Panamerican Highway passes through the city.

Ca. 20% of the country's population lives in Managua and the migration is large. After the many earthquakes, the city is poor in sights, but it has some monuments that testify to the country's long-standing civil war.


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