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Yearbook 2008

Mozambique. Like many poor developing countries, Mozambique was severely affected by sharply increased world market prices for food and fuel. In February, price increases led to, among other things, diesel for extensive protests. At least four people were killed and about a hundred were seriously injured in clashes between protesters and police. According to Countryaah reports, the protests forced the government to withdraw most price increases, which in some cases had reached 50 percent.

2008 Mozambique

Liberation Fight

Towards the end of the 1950s, the demand for independence in Mozambique grew as in the other colonial areas, and more exile movements were formed in neighboring countries. The process was made more difficult by the fact that Portugal deliberately worked on playing the different tribes against each other. In 1960, a spontaneous and peaceful demonstration of independence in Mueda was attacked by the military and 500 killed. The following year, Eduardo Mondlane visited his homeland. He was employed by the UN at that time. He convinced the various independence groups of the need to join together. It happened with the formation of FRELIMO on July 25, 1963 in Tanzania. It had activists and member organizations from all regions and ethnic groups in the country.

At the same time, however, it became clear that Portugal itself was too weak to choose a form of «neo-colonialist decolonization» - such as the France or England. FRELIMO therefore began to prepare for armed struggle, and after 2 years of secret organizational and political preparation, it began on December 25, 64. Towards the end of 65, there were regions in Mozambique where FRELIMO was the sole authority. Throughout the remainder of the 1960s, large areas in the north were liberated, and emphasis was placed on building an alternative society where local government, better health and schooling, agricultural production for self-sufficiency etc. were the focal points. Political mobilization and material progress in the liberated areas were inextricably linked to the armed struggle for liberation.

In 69, the movement controlled one-fifth of the country. In February of that year, however, Mondlane was assassinated by agents in the colonial service. It triggered a power struggle in the movement, on the one hand, those who simply regarded independence as a matter of "Africanizing" foreign domination, and on the other, those advocating the building of a new popular and democratic society. The power struggle was decided when FRELIMO held its 2nd congress. It took place in the liberated zones and elected Samora Moisés Machel as the new chairman of the movement.

In the early 1970s, FRELIMO halted a Portuguese military offensive - Operation "The Gordian Knot" - and then opened new fronts and liberated areas in the central parts of the country. Despite increased NATO support, the Portuguese military force was increasingly challenged. It turned out that the attempts to imprison 1 million Africans in "sheltered villages" according to North American pattern from Vietnam merely strengthened the dissatisfaction in the country.


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