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Europe Geography

Europe can be seen both as a continent and as the peninsula that terminates the Eurasian mainland to the west. One speaks of a continent because Europe has had a continent's significance, but its demarcation into Asia lacks the natural geographical and geological basis that is otherwise the basis for the division into continents. The perception of Europe as a continent is old, known in many varieties and has left many traces in and outside Europe.

Boundary, garden and coasts

2008 EuropeNormally, the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains or the Many Caves north of it are considered as border with Asia. Europe's other borders are gardens and alleys, which are easy to see in the landscape and on the map. To the east and south the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, the Marmara Sea and the Dardanelles, the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gibraltar Strait. To the west the Atlantic and to the north the Arctic. This demarcation separates waters, rivers, and mountain ranges, but crosses important traffic lines and significant distribution patterns. This applies to political, population and infrastructural contexts in Russia as well as to straits and sea areas that intersect rather than separate cultural landscapes, such as the Aegean Sea, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Garden. Europe is in the middle of the country hemisphere, but 1/3of the land area are islands and peninsulas. The Rand Sea North Sea continues in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea, which cuts deep into the country. The Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the connecting waters are surrounded by the Euro-Asian-African landmass. Numerous larger and smaller bays and fjords increase the division. Straits and border gardens separate large islands such as the British Isles, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and Crete from mainland Europe. In the archipelago of the Scandinavian Peninsula and along the coasts of the Adriatic and the Ionian and Aegean seas there are swarms of larger and smaller islands. The total coastal length, usually estimated at 40,000-60,000 km, illustrates the strong division. Over large parts of Europe there are only small distances to a coast, and Europe is the lowest of the continents with an average height above sea level of 300 m. Very large parts of the continent are actually lowland; thus the Northern European Plains, which extend into a belt from the English Channel to Urals, the Hungarian Plains, Posletten and others.

The seas around Europe contain important fishing grounds, for example the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. European fishermen are also largely caught on fishing grounds far from the shores of the continent. at Newfoundland and Greenland.

The seabed's raw materials are subject to growing utilization. Oil and gas extraction in the North Sea is a well-known, but far from unique, example. Fossil energy from the North Sea region has generated economic growth in many cities and regions, such as the Western Norway, Norway, North Holland and a number of cities on the UK's east coast, but the oil and gas fields also contribute to the North Sea's environmental impact.

The coasts. Highlands and mountains terminate at many European Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts by cliffs or steep rocky coasts. In long coasts that, like the Dalmatian, follow the mountain range, there are few natural accesses to the inland. Where the mountains, as on the southern Peloponnese or on many British coasts run across the coast, natural ports provide easy access to the areas behind it. Coastal landscapes, such as the northern coast of Brittany and Spain, are lowered late (rias), known on funnel-shaped estuaries. Low, exposed coasts are often offset as several French and Portuguese Atlantic coasts, the north and west-facing Baltic coasts and some stretches along the Mediterranean; many of these shores are accompanied by a dune belt. High tidal coastal landscapes have their distinctive features, as seen along the southern North Sea and the Atlantic coast of France.

World trade main roads follow European waters such as the North Sea, the Biscay and the Mediterranean, and important sea routes radiate from Europe's major port cities. High-traffic ports are part of European metropolitan areas or their infrastructure, and states' interest in port cities can be high. Current examples are the Kaliningrad enclave (Königsberg) in former East Prussia, which Russia holds on to, and the Bosnians' attempt to secure a recognized access to the Adriatic Sea.

Europe and the outside world

Access to the sea has always played a big role. The eastern Mediterranean was once seen as the center of the inhabited or civilized world. Here the three continents meet Africa, Asia and Europe, and here were good sea-host connections. The seaways connected the cultural landscapes of valleys and coastal plains. Here, knowledge, skills and important cultural plants found their way from Asia and Africa to Europe. The "known world" was later extended to several of the countries around the Mediterranean and its hive. Gradually, Europe's centers of power moved to different parts of the continent, and European influence, civilization and exploitation spread in other parts of the world.

Europe was previously ravaged by conquerors from Africa and Asia. As late as 1683, the Turks stopped in front of Vienna. In the 1700s, 1800s and 1900s. Europe sent armies, emigrants and industrial goods to other continents where communities changed or perished. The change in production patterns was often detrimental to the living conditions of the locals. Agriculture shifted from self-sufficiency to production to export; first in Europe, then in the foreign continents that had to supply raw materials for Europe's factories and food and enjoyment to the people of Europe. Throughout the 1800s and 1900s. Europe's business community was exposed to ever stronger competition. Many European industrial areas have experienced crises related to business closures and restructuring. It went wrong early in the textile and clothing industry, with cities like Verviers, Norrköping and Manchester hit hard. Later, for example, the machine industry, shipyards, car factories and also the high-tech industrial branches were affected. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits.

Europe accounts for a very large part of the world's energy consumption, and a large part is covered by imports. Power plants and vast oil refineries at many port cities are scenic testimonies to this. The oil crisis in 1973 accelerated both energy savings and redistribution of energy supply. Renewable energy was supported, and fossil fuels other than oil, along with nuclear power, were preferred in electricity generation. Much of Europe's oil and coal consumption must continue to be imported, and Russia accounts for considerable parts of European production and of fossil energy reserves, not least natural gas. In several countries, especially France, Belgium and Sweden, nuclear power covers large parts of electricity generation, while Russia, Ukraine and other countries' nuclear power plants not only have a decisive impact on electricity supply, but also represent a significant environmental risk.

European industry continues to be transformed with major local and regional consequences, negative in the old industrial areas and positive in the new growth regions. Industries in need of research background and skilled labor have grown in importance, but the growing tertiary sector has not been able to employ so much as it outweighs women's entry into the labor market, immigration and less employment in primary and secondary occupations.

Europe has two major and partially interrelated labor market issues: unemployment and immigration. Unemployment is largely structural and difficult to remedy. Migrations across Europe's state borders are partly a response to labor demand that started in the 1960s and partly as a result of the globally growing migrations. Immigrants come from both civil war areas in Europe and from the Third World. Some immigrant groups are well integrated and are an immediate benefit to overall employment; other groups are widely referred to as poorly paid jobs or unemployment.

Population

Europe's population geography presents a vivid picture that partly shows features of the long history of the continent and partly reflects the trends of recent decades. The same applies to the current map of Europe's languages.

The population of Europe is generally old and has low birth rates and growing death rates. Many countries experience birth deficits for shorter or longer periods, and generally the population only grows slowly. However, there are major regional differences, including with a background in the pattern of the hikes.

Religions and culture. Recent walks that include has brought many Muslims to European cities, has added an additional pattern to the well-known map of Europe's religions. Minorities have emerged in the core areas of many European states; This is in a kind of contrast to the minorities of, for example, Frisians, Sami, Basques, Hungarians and Ukrainians living on the outskirts of the states where they are citizens.

The vast majority of Europeans are Christians and Europe's culture is crucially characterized by Christianity. Secularization has dampened the practice of religion and weakened the importance of churches, although Christianity and other religions have come back stronger after the changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Roman Catholic Europe includes Italy, the Pyrenees Peninsula, France, the Irish Republic, Austria, Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. The Nordic countries, Estonia, Latvia and the United Kingdom are predominantly Protestant, while Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland are Catholic and Protestant. The Orthodox Church dominates in Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Macedonia. Turks and Albanians, including minorities around the Balkans, and many Bosnians are Muslims. In the Caucasus, the strategically important and contentious mountain country on Russia's southern border, the geography of the population is very complicated. Here are a number of people, many of whom are Muslim, who speak different languages ​​and who in different ways try to gain greater independence from Russia.

Europe's population geography presents a vivid picture that partly shows features of the long history of the continent and partly reflects the trends of recent decades. The same applies to the current map of Europe's languages.

The population of Europe is generally old and has low birth rates and growing death rates. Many countries experience birth deficits for shorter or longer periods, and generally the population only grows slowly. However, there are major regional differences, including with a background in the pattern of the hikes.

Religions and culture. Recent walks that include has brought many Muslims to European cities, has added an additional pattern to the well-known map of Europe's religions. Minorities have emerged in the core areas of many European states; This is in a kind of contrast to the minorities of, for example, Frisians, Sami, Basques, Hungarians and Ukrainians living on the outskirts of the states where they are citizens.

The vast majority of Europeans are Christians and Europe's culture is crucially characterized by Christianity. Secularization has dampened the practice of religion and weakened the importance of churches, although Christianity and other religions have come back stronger after the changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Roman Catholic Europe includes Italy, the Pyrenees Peninsula, France, the Irish Republic, Austria, Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. The Nordic countries, Estonia, Latvia and the United Kingdom are predominantly Protestant, while Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland are Catholic and Protestant. The Orthodox Church dominates in Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Macedonia. Turks and Albanians, including minorities around the Balkans, and many Bosnians are Muslims. In the Caucasus, the strategically important and contentious mountain country on Russia's southern border, the geography of the population is very complicated. Here are a number of people, many of whom are Muslim, who speak different languages ​​and who in different ways try to gain greater independence from Russia.

States, regions and geopolitics

European societies changed in pace with colonization, emigration and a growing world trade. The population was growing, and inventions, industrialization and the conversion of agriculture led to land-to-city migrations. National awareness and political conflicts and shifts of power followed social change. Europe is permanently changeable with both interconnecting or equalizing and separating or conflicting features. While state borders still matter less in the EU, the importance of the Union's external borders is growing. The surrender of sovereignty to the union interacts with growing local self-government within the states. In federal Germany, local and regional self-government is a tradition guaranteed by the Constitution. The regions, nations and minorities of other EU states, like the Sami, Welsh, Southern Tyroleans and Catalans had to fight for rights and secure their cultural uniqueness and political influence. Belgium exists in a balance between Walloon and Flemish, and Belgium's late emergence (1830) as a cushion state between European great powers is still felt.

Some European state borders have remained unchanged for centuries, while others have been moved frequently or recently. As the Iron Curtain disappeared or began to move to the east, geographical, population and geopolitical patterns and forces that were long held in check became significant again. The Cold War's simple two-tiered Europe paved the way for a complicated and labeling East European political map, where concepts such as Eastern Europe, Central Europe, the Baltic Sea countries, the Balkans, etc. were given a nuanced content. Regions and states are part of both new and recreated European patterns. The Serbian Vojvodina, since 1918, links landscapes and cultural geographies to Hungary and Central Europe, while such important states as Belarus and Ukraine are only beginning to acquire space as states on the European map and in our consciousness from the mid-1990s.

Mediterranean countries

The cultural community of the Mediterranean countries is rooted in uniform natural conditions and in ancient Greco-Roman and later Moorish, Italian, Turkish and Arab culture and societies. They all contributed to today's cultural landscape, including the destruction of soils and terrains that characterize much of the Mediterranean landscape. There are still major landscape similarities around the Mediterranean, while in European Mediterranean countries there are large differences in nature and business between the subtropical areas with "Mediterranean culture" and temperate areas with completely different cultural landscapes; Northern Italy is thus very different from southern Italy, and the Dalmatian Balkan coast is completely different from the country to the east.

Europe seen from the east

The division of the Roman Empire and the Christian Church traced the divisions of Europe. Following the conquest of the Turks in 1453 by Constantinople, present-day Istanbul, the Russians saw themselves as defenders of the Orthodox Church. Russia has since united this role and the role of the defender of the Slavic people with an imperialism which led to enlargements to the east, south and west. This position and the attempts to secure access to the sea led to long-standing competition and conflict with Turks, Austrians and the countries around the Baltic Sea. Russia's basic geopolitical goals have remained unchanged from the Czar and Soviet times until now. An extensive Eurasian Russia is bounded to the south by, among other things, predominantly Muslim, and for the majority of Turkish-speaking languages, neighboring countries, and to the west of Ukraine, Belarus, and the three Baltic states with Russian minorities.

Central Europe

Germany, which is in the middle of Europe and dominates Central Europe (the extent of which can be discussed), was previously divided into many small states. German language and culture were early spread throughout most of present-day Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well as gradually in the areas of Eastern Europe and Russia, where German immigrants settled. The German area had two centers when German nationalism caught wind in the sails of the last century; Vienna, the capital of the Habsburg Austria-Hungary, and the country around the Rhine and Main. The "Common German" Reichstag was held in Frankfurt am Main 1848. The Austro-Hungarian Empire contained large populations of non-German, primarily Slavic and Hungarian, populations. The double monarchy had dominated its part of Central Europe, Italy and the Balkans in competition with, in particular, France, Russia and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). The balance of power in Central Europe changed as Prussia began Germany's unification and moved its center of gravity from the Rhine to northern Germany and Berlin. Prussia took over the lead in the entire German territory and followed Austria-Hungary since World War I, at the end of which the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman emperors dissolved in a number of new states. In the years before World War II, a new Central European - Great German - gathering occurred, which ended after the war in Europe's division into two spheres, dominated by a power from outside the United States, and by a power, the Soviet Union, which considered itself European, but which also had Asian features. Germany was divided into two, and its economic center of gravity was again at the Rhine, Main and Neckar as in the time before Germany's rally.

Central Europe is now no longer divided, and Berlin is not only Germany's capital, but a central European center. The reunited, powerful Germany in the middle of Europe is hardly a threat like the one that once frightened smaller neighbors and nagged rulers in London, Paris and Moscow. This is because Franco-German reconciliation and cooperation; The Coal and Steel Union, the Treaty of Rome and the Western Union. The progressively growing EC and EU have both had to ensure Europe's peace and economic recovery and development. According to Abbreviationfinder, EU stands for European Union.

Western Europe

French geopolitical interest is characterized partly by competition with the European great powers which could threaten from the south, east and north, and partly by France's past as colonial power in Africa and elsewhere.

England's relationship with Europe was determined for centuries by the pursuit of a favorable British interest on the continent and by the distance dictated by the global interests of the British Empire and later the Commonwealth. Britain's decline was already evident at the beginning of the 1900s and was completed after World War II through decolonization and the successive abandonment of the "East of Suez" presence. NATO and the functioning of the alliance until the early 1990s linked Britain and Europe closely to the United States, the former colony and the present world power.

Northern Europe

After Denmark was the only Nordic EU country for a number of years, Finland and Sweden became members of the union in 1995. The polls on EU membership in Finland, Sweden and Norway (1994) showed that it was mainly the big cities that wanted membership. Resistance was strongest, and in Norway's case decisive, in areas where large parts of the population depend on raw material production and processing. The big cities and their surroundings are characterized by service industries and close connection to the outside world. The difference between urban cultures and the existence of small towns or the open country is so pronounced in the three largest Nordic countries that important issues divide the regions regionally. The capitals and few large cities are oriented abroad, especially in Europe's core areas, while the connection to the countryside is sometimes weakened. There is far - mentally and in time - from Oslo and Stockholm to a northern Norwegian fishing community or a northern Swedish sawmill town. In contrast, environmental and other grassroots movements have supporters in both urban and rural areas, in the north and south, drawing a different and regionally unifying pattern. Differences between core areas and the periphery, which are less pronounced in Denmark, are seen throughout Europe.

Urban Europe

The majority of Europe's population lives in cities, but with vast differences between countries; in Belgium over 95%, in the Netherlands 90%, in Denmark, Sweden and Germany approx. 85% and in Portugal and Albania 35%. The majority of states' production and consumption is linked to a small part of the area. Here the urban industries are concentrated, and here the vast majority spend almost all their time. Urban growth caused housing to disappear from the city center while more suburbs and garden and sleeping villages emerged; a development that gained momentum in the 1950s and continued into the following decades. New areas were built and many were given a long journey between residence and work. The European metropolises are all characterized by colossal road and rail systems to cope with this task.

Especially from the 1980s many central urban areas again got housing construction. The living areas of cities have very different ages, standards and population. Old and poorly maintained high-rise buildings turn into slums and sometimes into ghettos. Neighborhoods and suburbs can vary from wealthy neighborhoods to suburban ghettos with major social problems, depending on standard, price, location and infrastructure.

Internationalization

European nation states still matter less because of the interaction between business development, urbanization and internationalization. Workforce competition is moving jobs to the east and south of Europe and away from here. Migration from country to city, from south to north and now from east to west affects the composition of the population. Every corner of Europe senses changing currency, borrowing and sales conditions in major European or overseas countries. Urban regions such as Paris, Frankfurt, Milan, Copenhagen or Moscow function increasingly with Europe and the world market. The existence of cities is largely based on service, information and knowledge. These information and service societies are characterized by functional and power shifts, often rapid shifts, between regions, cities and catchments. The EU's core area is like a banana, reaching from the English metropolitan area over the outskirts of Holland and the Belgian metropolitan areas, the German urban bands on the Rhine, Main and Neckar and to northern Italy. The area has close links to the east (Berlin) and the north, and its infrastructure and urban links to the SV along the Franco-Spanish Mediterranean coast and the SE of Italy are strengthened. Other urban zones develop at some distance from the "banana": around Paris, in southern Italy and Spain-Portugal, and in the Oresund region. These patterns reflect both the changes in the cultural landscapes and the framework that the natural basis determines.

Profession

Service industries are becoming increasingly important and employ a growing part of the business sector. The commercial areas of large cities are dominated by offices, shops and entertainment rather than factories. Factories production is handled by ever fewer. Deserted industrial areas are either scarred in the city or have become residential or institutional areas due to a sought after location. I English, Dutch, Nordic and Italian cities are seen attracting homes on abandoned factory, warehouse and quay areas by harbor pools, rivers and canals. The industrial landscape continues to dominate where location and infrastructure are appropriate. Here, factories, warehouses, traffic areas and possibly mines continue to landscape. Production facilities for iron and steel, energy and means of transport are very filling, require transport facilities and characterize the landscape. The same applies to larger mines and oil fields with shaft and drill towers, pumps, waste dumps and the follow-on industry. In old industrial regions of the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Benelux and Italy, older and newer industrial districts alternate. Factories along Volga and Don, in Donetsk, Minsk and Upper Silesia are examples of old, often outdated and highly polluting industries.

Agriculture. The village is the prevailing form of open land in much of Europe. The appearance and size of the villages vary - from the three to twenty farms known in the cluster and range villages of Central Europe, to, for example, the villages of Southern Italy, which can house thousands of people. Primary occupations, primarily agriculture, were previously the village's business base. The areas around the village were cultivated by its residents, who could have far to the fields. The heavily divided areas were subsequently replaced and the farms of each farm were collected.

There is a big difference between completely open landscapes with closed villages and landscapes with a pattern of villages and single farms. The large estates and buildings of the goods for land workers or small farmers characterize large areas, which were often added to the colonies of the homestead or - east of the Iron Curtain - collective and state farming. Late cultivated areas' farms are often scattered or in rows along roads and canals as in West Jutland and in Dutch and German polder and high bog areas. Migration from country to city led to the partial depopulation of villages in Northern and Central Europe and later in Southern Europe. Only a vanishing part of Europe's workers are employed on the European "cultural steppe"; often from 2-3% to 6-7%, in Greece and Russia, however, about 20%.

Forest lands are partly smaller remnants of the natural forests, and partly large areas with forestry or plantations. Europe's highly-impacted areas alternate with less changed environments; nature parks and other protected areas where the natural landscape is preserved or recreated.

Countries in Europe
  1. Aland
  2. Albania
  3. Andorra
  4. Austria
  5. Belarus
  6. Belgium
  7. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  8. Bulgaria
  9. Croatia
  10. Czech Republic
  11. Denmark
  12. Estonia
  13. Faroe Islands
  14. Finland
  15. France
  16. Germany
  17. Greece
  18. Hungary
  19. Iceland
  20. Ireland
  21. Italy
  22. Kosovo
  23. Latvia
  24. Liechtenstein
  25. Lithuania
  26. Luxembourg
  27. Malta
  28. Moldova
  29. Monaco
  30. Montenegro
  31. Netherlands
  32. Northern Macedonia
  33. Norway
  34. Poland
  35. Portugal
  36. Romania
  37. Russia
  38. San Marino
  39. Serbia
  40. Slovakia
  41. Slovenia
  42. Spain
  43. Sweden
  44. Switzerland
  45. Ukraine
  46. United Kingdom
  47. Vatican City

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